Private Sector Regulation Project


The healthcare delivery system in India is characterised by coexisting government and private health services. The highly utilised private healthcare delivery sector is especially common in urban India. Despite early acknowledgement of the need to regulate the private sector, it was only in 2010 that the federal government enacted a legislation to regulate private medical establishments. In 2007, Karnataka, a southern Indian state, enacted the Karnataka Private Medical Establishment Act (KPMEA) to set minimum standards of healthcare services to ensure quality of care delivered by private medical establishments. However compliance to these regulations by private medical establishments has remained poor. There is a dearth of literature explaining poor compliance by the private sector to these regulations. Furthermore, there are no studies that examine whether and how these regulations might enhance the quality of care delivered in the private sector.

Aim and Objectives

This study aims to analyse a specific regulatory tool, the Karnataka Private Medical Establishment Act, 2007 (KPMEA). The overall research objective is to understand the context, actors and processes involved in the conception, formulation and implementation of KPMEA.


The study will use an explanatory policy analysis approach using a political economy perspective. The specific methodological tools will include a review of literature, analysis of media articles and policy documents, reflective and formal interviews with key stakeholders. Using the data researchers will conduct stakeholder analysis in the context of the private healthcare delivery market. In addition, the researchers will carry out comparative case studies to understand the role of government regulations, and the socio-political conditions that enable or prevent effective regulation in the healthcare delivery arena.

Duration of project
September 2014 – December 2016

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Study Team

Upendra Bhojani

Neethi V Rao

Meena Putturaj

Munegowda C M